Thursday, October 24, 2013

T-8 And Counting (QSL Tips)

Chasing VUCC on 2 Meters using indoor antennas has been a five year quest for me, but it's nearly reached the conclusion. It began in 2008, after reading a column in QST by Gene Zimmerman, W3ZZ (SK) entitled "Chasing VUCC".

I had recently moved into a deed restricted neighborhood after my wife suffered a back injury. Three flights of steps was no longer a realistic option for her, and caring for a large home didn't make much sense either. Like many folks with kids in college, we downsized and moved into a garden home.

Along with that came deed restrictions and a nasty home owners association. Making matters worse, the President of the HOA lives next door. Closing day brought a handbook which made it clear that outdoor antennas of any kind were strictly forbidden, along with flagpoles, etc. HF seemed to be nearly impossible.

After reading Gene's article, I wondered about the four element VHF/UHF vertical beam that I had put inside our spacious attic. I'd been able to work repeaters as far away as Georgia, Tennessee, and Mississippi...I wondered how it might perform if I flipped it to horizontal and tried it on SSB.

One Saturday afternoon, I did just that, and made a CQ on 144.200. To my surprise, I was answered right away, and had a nice QSO with a local VHF station. Two weeks later I participated in the January VHF Contest, my first ever. I was expecting a flurry of activity, but managed to only work five stations. Still I was hooked.

A Six Meter 3 element Yagi was purchased, a TV rotor pressed into service inside the attic, then bigger Yagi's for 2 Meters, 222, and 432. Along the way, I purchased an Icom IC-910H, learned about transverters, upgraded from RG-8 coax to 1/2" hardline, read a lot about noise figures, and propagation. Installed WSJT and made my first ever meteor scatter QSO, and generally had a ball.

My "handicap" turned out to be the blessing that inspired me to become active on VHF/UHF---and the most fun I've ever had in amateur radio!

6 Meter VUCC came quickly, and by August of 2008 after the e-skip season, I had earned my first VUCC Award. But I knew from Gene's article that didn't amount to much--2 Meters was the real prize. It was clear that earning it was going to take a lot longer.

As of October of 2013, I've worked 110 Grids on 2 Meters, with roughly half that coming from WSJT meteor scatter contacts, several from a nice three day tropo opening in 2010, and three e-skip openings. Some CW tropo contacts account for the majority of the rest.

Of that, I've confirmed 92 of the contacts via Paper cards and Logbook of the World (LoTW). Now that it's down to the precious few remaining, I'm trying every trick I can think of to confirm those remaining. Recently, I was provided some excellent advice on "Advanced QSLing" by Bill Ockert, ND0B. I'll share that along with some of my own below. This can really help in getting those last few cards, or that rare grid you need.

Always check We have a ham here in ND who has one thing on his QRZ page and that is "I do not QSL."  (Thankfully this is not the norm, but Bob's correct--you will run into it.-N1LF)

Are you on Logbook of the World?   Experience has shown that about 1/3 of the time you will get a confirmation on LoTW and I have found at least some folks who are on LoTW that will not paper QSL regardless of what you send them. 

After six months without a reply, I start attempting to contact the person by other means but always just to check if they got my card.   That is a benign way of making sure they got the card and if so reminding them to send one.   I usually email first and if I do not get a response I use white pages and any other means to track down a phone number.   I look for hams located nearby and contact them.   I look for clubs they might be in.   Anything to get them the message "Did you get my card?..."
(You must be a registered user of and be logged in before you can view a person's e-mail address-N1LF)

Sometimes, but not often, it is the Post Office who may be at fault. Trying to get a card from DN05 I sent a card/SASE, no response so after six months, so I sent an email.  I had an immediate email back that no card was received.  I sent another card/SASE and after two months of no response I sent another email.  Again I had an immediate email back that no card was received.   I was convinced I was being jerked around so I sent another card/SASE via priority mail with a tracking number.   That got there and I had an email that my card was in the mail.  

After two weeks of nothing I sent a fairly blunt email asking if the gent and his buddies were having a good laugh at my expense.  The reply I got was no way, I worked sixteen station the day I worked you which was my first day on 6m and am very proud of that, I do not know what is going on... "What do you want me to do?"   I asked him to send his card to me via Priority Mail and I would reimburse him through Paypal.   He did, I got it, I paid him with some extra to cover his gas and figure I had at least twenty five bucks into that card before it was all said and done.
(This will be very rare. The US Postal Service is one of the most efficient and reliable means of communication on the planet. A tracking number is not a bad idea for important cards, however.-N1LF)

Always use Forever Stamps on your Self-Addressed Stamped Envelopes. (SASE).  If the person is slow in responding that in and of itself may keep your card out of file 13.

I have had two instances now where the person has been suffering from a major illness.   In one instance when I called the guy he had been sick for two years and had a shoebox full of cards, some with old (not enough) postage, etc he was trying to deal with.   While we were on the phone he started looking through to find my card.   I stopped him and thanked him and told him that was not a good use of either of our time that I would just send another card/SASE.   I did and had his card and my unused SASE back in less than a week.   As recently as yesterday it came out on the Fred Fish Memorial Award (FFMA) reflector that one of the grids I had confirmed on LoTW that others were waiting for on paper the gent had been very sick and had just hired someone to process the 2k+ cards he had backed up.  While I do not need it because of LoTW I should get one from there eventually.

One trick a lot of us use is to generate a reverse QSL and send it along with your card and SASE.   The reverse QSL is a card from the station in question to you with all of the particulars filled in and a place for the other station to sign it as being valid.   I have had this work maybe 3 of the 10 times I have tried it.

The key point is be persistent but do not be a pest.   With some folks the gentle reminder that is given by asking if they got your card, with some folks it takes a phone call. DE Bill ND0B.

 Isn't that great advice? Let me share some of my own experience as well. My practice is generally something like this:

  • Work new stations, and upload new contacts to LoTW about once a week. 
  • Send out a new batch of QSL paper card requests once every two weeks or so. I always include a SASE with a Forever Stamp. I put printed address labels on my return envelope in both the main address area, and the return address area. This way, accidental damage to the letter won't obscure my address and will allow USPS to complete delivery. 
  • Make a note in my log of when the SASE was mailed. 
  • Wait
In six months or even longer, I send a follow up card and another SASE. Bill's advice about a friendly e-mail reminder has already paid off with two cards that I had been waiting on for years--just by sending that e-mail. Both came with an apology too.

Recently, I also printed up a single sheet with a photo of my indoor antenna farm, and an explanation about how I was using indoor antennas, and how every grid confirmation was precious to me. This resulted in a lot of the die-hards returning cards that had been on their desks for years. Make sure that the person you're asking for a card knows that you're pursuing a goal and why. It can really pay off.

Many hams don't chase awards, or long ago worked enough stations to earn them all anyway. They may not understand why the QSL is so important to you--and not make sending one back a priority. Simply circling "PSE QSL" on your card isn't enough. Let them know why you want/need that card.

Bill also provided some detailed advice on how to improve your odds of confirming a contact via Logbook of the World (LoTW) that is worth repeating too.

One further thought being as you are on LoTW and are making long contacts such as WSJT meter scatter or EME QSO's.

It is good to keep in mind that LoTW seems to use about a half hour window to match the QSL records for a QSO and I think, but do not have it on authority, that has tightened up a lot in the last year or so.   The issue on this is if you are like me and log the contact with the actual start time (when I started TXing) and the actual completion time (when I got RRR, 73 or a hey I got your RRR by other means) and those times are hours apart it then becomes important what your logging program uploads to LOTW.   I use Ham Radio Deluxe and it uploads the start time.   Others upload the stop time.  You can see the issue.

What I tend to do periodically is on contacts I do not have confirmed is to log into LoTW and do the "Find Call" tab.   This gives you a window where you can type in a call and find out if a station is active on LOTW and the last time they uploaded.   If the last time they uploaded is after the contact I then take a look at the contact in my log.   If it was a long one, like many of the WSJT ones are, I make note of the start time in my comments section (so I do not loose it) and make the start time my finish time and then upload the contact to LoTW again.  Many times that fixed it.   If it does not then I get a copy of my QSL record from LoTW and email it to the other station asking if they can see what is wrong.   A lot of times that gets things fixed up.

If the other stations last upload time is prior to the contact an email asking them to upload sometimes helps.You can also search your "most wanted" callsigns to see if they even use LoTW at all. DE Bill ND08.

Bill providing even more great advice! Thanks "Dr. Bill--you're the man".

Most hams who are active in the digital modes will use LoTW, and generally QSL quickly. But there are exceptions. One of my "Most Wanted" is a FSK441 meteor scatter contact, and I've been trying to get that card for over three years. No joy, so far.

Some other thoughts:

  • Continue to try to work that grid again. That can be hard if it was made via e-skip or WSJT, but sometimes the magic happens more than once. Working another station gives you two chances to confirm a needed grid. 
  • Resist the temptation to call someone out in public forums such as VHF related e-mail reflectors, chat rooms, etc. This is unlikely to get you the card--or change their attitude. As long as you don't anger the person, there is always hope that someday, you'll get the card. 
  • SASE's are a must. Many hams are older and living on fixed incomes. Postage is an expense that they can't afford. You want the card--so you should pay the postage. 
  • That being said, I always return SASE's in a new envelope with postage that I paid for. No ham has to pay to get my card. That's how my Elmer, Ron Murray, WA4IWN taught me years ago. 
  • Express Mail, Fedex Letter etc. My secret weapon---for high value grids, where nothing else has worked, I did have success sending a letter and SASE with reverse QSL card included via Express Mail. 
Express Mail (and similar products from other shippers) makes quite an impact. You can require a signature to receive the letter--and it really gets someone's attention. I've sent out two of these, and both times received a return QSL within the week!

Is a QSL worth that much money? That's for you to decide, but considering my five year quest for VUCC on 2 certainly is to me.

So, get on the air make some noise. No excuses. And if you have QSL requests sitting on your desk, make time to send them back. Some poor Moe is waiting on that. :-)


DE N1LF  T- 8 and Counting Down

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Chasing VUCC on the Birds

For the past several years, I've been a strong advocate of those forced to live in deed restricted or HOA situations to have one "on the rocks". That is to use WSJT software and meteor scatter to pursue their dreams of earning VUCC.

Still strongly advocate that position. Thanks mainly to WSJT, I've now worked 104 grids on 2 Meters. If I can nail down the confirmations, I'll be able to cross my second VUCC award off the list.

But in the past five weeks I've discovered another great way to chase VUCC. Namely, via amateur satellites. Using small 2 Meter and 432 Yagis, you can easily work into at least four satellites and the International Space Station (ISS).

In just a little over a month, I've already worked 48 grids and that's with very casual operating. Operating on the birds also fits my busy work schedule and personal commitments. Using satellite position tracking software like "SATPC32" and "Nova for Windows", you can easily predict when the satellites will be overhead days in advance. Simply select the passes that work into your schedule and operate. No trying to drop everything for a band opening.

FM-No Static At All

We're currently down to just one operating FM "repeater" type satellite, SO-50. But it is easily worked using an Arrow satellite antenna or the ELK 2/440 log antenna. Both can be operated portable from  your backyard, handheld. A dual band HT or mobile rig is really all you need.

It's best to be able to monitor the satellite downlink signal at the same time you're transmitting (this is called full-duplex) but it is possible to operate using half-duplex and virtually any rig.

During weekend passes, or at night SO-50 can be a real zoo. Contacts are super-quick, just callsign and grid square, maybe a "73". Convention demands that you only make one or two contacts per pass if the bird is crowded. Get on and get off. Let someone else work a few.

During the weekdays or late at night, passes are much less crowded and  you can have longer QSO's. It's a great way to get your feet wet.

Moving On Up

The other type of "bird" are the so called linear satellites that allow you to operate in SSB/CW modes across a small range of frequencies called the passband. Turning across these frequencies during a pass, you'll hear stations using both modes and having much longer QSO's.

The best radios for this type of operation are the so-called satellite radios like the Icom IC-9100, IC-910H, or the Yaesu FT-847. But SATPC32 can allow lots of other VHF/UHF all-mode rigs to work as well including FT-857, FT-817, IC-706, etc.

You don't need (or want) a lot of power to work satellites. Usually 5 watts is plenty. With small antennas, and low power, you're not likely to bother the neighbors.

One satellite (AO-7) offers great opportunities to work DX stations as it's high "footprint" touches both Europe and North America at the same time during it's passes. FO-29 and some of the other birds offer DX into South America, Canada, Cuba, etc. Many operators have even managed DXCC on satellites.

A Deluxe Apartment in the Sky

The International Space Station is the largest man-made object ever launched, and even visible to the naked eye during the day time if you know where to look. At night, it can be brighter than Venus as it tracks across the sky!

It's also equipped with amateur radio, and nearly every astronaut these days is a licensed amateur operator. Sometimes you can hear astronauts making contacts with schools using ham radio by monitoring 145.800, and on rare moments of relaxation some may even throw out a random CQ on this simplex channel and work amateurs on the ground.

More often, you can hear packet (digital) activity from the ISS on 145.825 MHz. The station is LOUD and easily received even on an HT or mobile rig with just a whip antenna.

The ISS serves as a super-high digipeater, making it possible to work other stations in real-time using the ISS as a digital repeater. And recently, two hams managed to bounce 1296 MHz signals off the ISS using it as a passive repeater--similar to moonbounce (EME) or airplane scatter.


If you want to get started, visit the AMSAT web site at the link below, and pony up the money for membership. Not only will you get a great monthly journal on satellite operation, but you'll be helping to support the next generation of amateur satellites, called the "Fox" series. These FM mode birds will begin launching next year, and will be even easier to work using your HT.

You can learn more about satellite operation at:

And watch some great videos on YouTube to give you a better feel for what a QSO feels like:
AMSAT YouTube Channel

It's a Bird! 

I'm having a ball on satellites, and I think you would too. Working meteor scatter, satellites, and (fingers crossed) moonbounce are all items that were on my ham radio "bucket list" since I was introduced to the hobby at age 7.

If you've always wanted to try it, now is the time. FM operation is really easy--and it's a perfect thing to add to your weak signal station. You can use the gear you already have, and get even more fun out of the world above 50 MHz.

See you on the rocks--and on the birds!

Saturday, January 19, 2013

102 Grids Worked on 2 Meters

Progress towards my goal of VUCC on 2 Meters has been slow, but I have managed to work 102 grids using my indoor antenna (6 element, 200 watts). WJST has accounted for about 60% of those grids, and e-skip has helped to fill in the rest. July of 2012 was an exciting time with e-skip in and out for the better part of an hour. Very exciting! 

Now comes the fun part, getting the confirmations. Less than 70 grids confirmed, though I send out QSL cards for each new grids complete with return postage and an SASE. Have to do a second wave of follow up requests that includes a letter of explanation about why their card is so important. 

LOTW isn't popular with 2 Meter DXers, though WSJT users seem to use it a lot. 

Today is the January 2013 VHF Contest, and I'm excited to be back on the air. Slow going so far, but lots of new FM locals in the mix--so that's exciting. Thanks to everyone who has tracked my 
progress--hope to be able to display a photo that VUCC certificate soon. 



Sunday, July 22, 2012

CQ VHF 2012-Small Pistol is Big Gun for the Day

One of the great things about the Magic Band is that the band itself serves as a great equalizer. This is especially true during contests. Seven element over stacks at 300' and a KW are great---but you may
still miss out on a contact to someone with a modest antenna at a lower height.

During contests, I tend to be a "S&P" specialist. Scanning the band looking for contacts, and especially multipliers. This is the typical strategy employed by small pistol stations on HF--and it seemed natural to do it on VHF contests for the first couple of years.

But I've since learned that during a strong opening, you can make a lot more points by sitting on a frequency and doing a "run" like the big boys do.

The 20122 CQ VHF Contest proved the point again on Sunday afternoon. Lunch time came along with a strong opening to FN and FM grids. I perched on 50.200 and began calling CQ, right at the top
of the MUF and just a bit clear of the frenzy at 50.160 and below.

My strategy worked. Soon I was in the midst of a pile-up, with QSO run rates of nearly 100 per hour
at times. It hovered between 60 and 78 for a run rate for almost an hour. My score literally tripled in that
brief opening--and I had a  blast to boot.

If you're a small pistol with indoor antennas, don't disregard the Magic Band. It's the easiest to make VUCC, and a lot of fun in contests.


Les N1LF

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

T Minus 3...2....1

What a great summer it has been, despite the nearly complete lack of E-Skip in July. June was one of the best months ever for E-Skip including several 2 Meter openings. As Murphy would have it, I missed nearly all of them due to work and family commitments. But I did manage to work three new states, and a few new grids. I'm at 97 grids worked now on 2, all via the indoor antennas. 

I'm hoping that the August Perseids meteor shower will be a good one this year, allowing me to move over the magic 100 grid mark. Or we'll see a nice tropo opening here as the summer draws to a close. It's been well over 100 degrees here for the past two weeks, but despite the presence of a lingering high pressure system, conditions have been only slightly better than average. I think if you're going to endure "heat advisories" warnings on NOAA Weather Radio, then you should at least have some tropo to go with it! 

Some other highlights of the Summer of 2010 so far: 

  • The ARRL June Contest saw this station working VUCC in a single weekend of limited operating time, on 100 watts, all using the indoor 3 element beam! That's one I won't soon forget. 
  • Worked Joe Taylor, K1ST, one of my radio heroes using his new WSJT 8 software on ISCAT mode via 6 Meters. What a thrill! Can't thank Joe enough for his invention which has made most of this possible. 
  • Added a 30 watt 1296 DEMI transverter, which should help me on that band. 
  • In the process of upgrading antennas for 2 Meters, 902, and 1296--should be ready for the September contest. 
  • A new "serious rover" Austin, K4AMK moved to Helena, AL only a few miles from my home. He's in the process of building a very serious contest capable rover, and should really change the game here. He's also interested in Optical DX, so we're working on some transceivers to make a VUCC attempt in that region soon too. 

VUCC In a Weekend, On Indoor Antennas!

This past weekend's ARRL VHF Contest began with a healthy dose of Murphy. At
the request of my good friend, Marcus Thomas, KF4YHP, I had planned on doing a
multi-multi operation using his 75 foot portable tower, 7 element M2 6 Meter
beam, and 17B2 Boomer, along with my compliment of rover antennas for the
other bands thru 1.2 Ghz.

Only days before the contest, Marcus injured his hand while working on a tower
for another ham in the area. The injury was severe enough to not only stop our
work on the feedlines for our effort, but to keep Marcus out of work and off
the air for the duration.

With only three days to prepare for the effort, I debated my options for the
contest Rebuild the rover rack and try to visit some nearby grids as a rover?
Throw up some portable mast in the driveway, and attempt a 6 band effort from
home? Forget the whole thing and go fishing with the XYL?

Murphy continued his domination at this point, as a major project at work
resulted in a lot of late nights and early mornings, with no time for hobby.
Thursday night saw me in a state of antennas in the attic antennas on the rover's and feedlines lying in the
shack floor. AHHHH!!!!

To complicate matters, our nephew had decided to pay us a visit over the
weekend. I quickly pressed him into service after I got home on Friday, and
together we managed to reinstall the hardline and antennas in my attic to get
me on 6M thru 1.2 Ghz.

Alabama experienced near record temperatures of well over 95 degrees, and
inside the attic, it must have been well into the 100's. Work progress was
slow, and breaks were frequent. As midnight neared, I began checking each line
for SWR...problems arose immediately. High readings on several bands, with no
apparent cause.

At 4AM, I finally called it a night, with only 6, 2, and 432 working
correctly. I resigned myself to a very limited effort on those bands.

As the contest began, 6 Meters roared to life, and filled my receiver up past
50.250! Even more amazing was that it lasted for hours on end. While I enjoyed
the runs on 6 Meters, my main goal was to work new grids on 2 Meters towards
the VUCC effort.

Mid-afternoon saw 6 Meter contacts grow very short, with my station working
into nearby South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee via E-skip. I quickly tuned
to 2 Meters and began listening in earnest for E-Skip there. None was heard,
however, and back to 6 I went.

Murphy stuck his final blow when I attempted to work nearby powerhouse, Jimmy
Long, W4ZRZ on 432. I recently purchased Icom IC-471 failed to operate
properly. Jimmy could hear me, but I couldn't detect his signal at all. We
switched to FM and worked using my 50 watt Icom FM rig! Drat!

Late in the day on Saturday, I finally gave up on the affair, and decided to
spend some quality time with the wife and my nephew. We went fishing at a
nearby lake until nearly 3AM..and had a blast. I got a ton of Bream, and tried
to enjoy my family.

Sunday morning saw exhaustion and heat taking their toll, and I slept right
thru my 6AM wake up call. Finally staggered into the shack around
find 2 Meters dead, and 6 again wide open. Having no other options, I
concentrated on working 6 Meter contacts, determined to have some fun and just
enjoy renewing friendships.

By 11AM, I noticed that I had already worked 78 grids, despite very limited
operating time. A thought crossed my mind; "I wonder if I could work 100 grids
before the contest ends"? As a few more new ones were logged, the possibility
of earning VUCC in a single weekend using only 100 watts and the indoor
antenna seemed a real possibility.

The push was on....and by 1PM, I passed the century mark. VUCC in a weekend,
using nothing but a stock Icom 746 Pro and an indoor antenna. Wow! No wonder
they call it the Magic Band! By contest end, I had worked 126 grids, four
countries, 33 states, and had a ton of fun!

Thanks to all the wonderful operators who struggled to pull out my weak
signal, and even more to those who stopped for a brief moment to encourage me.
Great contest, and despite not working any new ones on Two, one that I won't
soon forget.


Les Rayburn, N1LF
VUCC 6 Meters #1,712
Grid Bandit #222

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

T Minus Nine & Counting

June 2, 2010 brought a sustained Sporadic E-Skip opening to the Southeastern United States. Six Meters opened early in the morning to the Caribbean, and then to Mexico. Several times during the morning, the band grew "short" here with nearby grids like EM48 being worked on 6 Meters via E-Skip. 

For those new to VHF, E-Skip paths typically cover 600-1100 miles, with longer paths being worked via "double hop" propagation. When these events become intense on 6 Meters, the distance to stations being worked grows shorter, with contacts of less than 300 miles becoming possible. As this happens, the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF) climbs higher. 

Many hard core DX'ers will track the MUF using a variety of indicators. One of those is when you start to see 6 Meters "go short". Other good things to check are listening for E-Skip on local FM channels that are "empty". 

During this opening, my local channels were being overwhelmed with stations from Houston, Dallas, and Kansas City. These E-skip openings happened first on 88.5, then 101.1, finally reaching above 107.5. 

A quick check of the NOAA Weather Radio frequencies at 162Mhz revealed only the "usual suspects" I knew the MUF was somewhere between 108 and 162. I sent several CQ's on 144.200, hoping for rare 2 Meter E-Skip, but nothing was heard. 

As the afternoon, progressed, this cycle repeated itself. E Skip on 6 Meters would build to a frenzy, and Mexican TV stations would fill  the screen of my old B&W set in my shack. First TV channel 2, then 3, then 4....The FM dial would fill up too, but nothing on 2 Meters. Drat! 

 I started catching up on some e-mails in our home office, and an hour passed.  I drifted back into the shack, to see a crystal clear picture on Channel 5 from Mexico. Wow. The bands must be jumping. I spun to the NOAA Weather Radio channels and heard strong signals on the two vacant channels in my area! The MUF must be above 162 MHz! 

Quickly, I spun the dial to 144.200 and heard KA0JGH calling CQ from Nebraska with no takers. I called him, and he came right back with a 59+ signal report. Wow! A new grid and a new state. I moved up and down the band listening for other calls. 

Managed to work W0NRW from EN11 for another new grid, and then AE0G in EN10. Then disaster wife tapped me on the shoulder, pointed towards her watch, and reminded me that we had a date for dinner with another couple. But....but....

Common sense prevailed. A contest weekend is coming, with the CQ WW to follow soon after that. I'd spent almost the whole day in the shack on 6 Meters, and DXing TV stations. Trying to get out of this dinner would be a suicide mission. I switched off the rig, and went to freshen up before dinner. 

As we drove, David Benton, WA4JGG called my cell phone to tell me that 2 Meters was open. My wife listened on our Bluetooth speaker, and said, "Honey, why didn't you say so? We could have canceled". After 28 years of marriage, I know better than to take bait like that. I just smiled, and said, "I'm sure the band will be open again soon". 

I hated to miss most of that opening, but EN10 and EN11 put me at 91 grids on 2 Meters with the indoor antennas. And I live to fight another day. Hoping that I'll pick up at least one or two more this weekend....

Great opening, and lots of fun. Thanks to my new friends in Nebraska, and the world's best XYL. She's even worth passing up a 2 Meter E-Skip opening many men can say that?